The Schengen Area refers to the European states that have obliterated all kinds of border control measures at their mutual borders including the passport. Some of these 26 Schengen member states include Austria, Belgium, Latvia, Hungary, Poland, Spain, Malta, Portugal, Estonia, France, Czech Republic, Germany and others. In the year 1985, this arrangement was planned under the treaty organization in Luxembourg and the provisions were finally enforced in the year 1995. Once you have attained a Schengen Visa, you have an unrestricted freedom to travel across the entire Schengen area.
If you are a citizen of non-Schengen area then you are required to attain a Schengen visa. You can apply for the visa at the designated embassy or consulate. Depending upon your purpose of visit or travel, you will be given the appropriate type of visa.